Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Recognition and Management

Anxiety and depression are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occurring more frequently than in the general population or patients with other chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, or musculoskeletal disorders. Their presence is associated with worse outcomes of COPD, and increased morbidity, mortality, disability, and health care expenditure.  In spite of this, both anxiety and depression are frequently overlooked and undertreated in patients with COPD, and symptoms of anxiety and depression can overlap significantly, as well as overlap with COPD symptoms.