The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation compared to conventional physiotherapy or oxygen therapy in
the mortality rate and prevention of pulmonary complications in patients during the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery.
The research included searching the following databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, PEDro, LILACS and manual search of the references of studies published until March 2016. The review included randomized controlled trials with patients during the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery, which compared the use of noninvasive ventilation, BiLevel modes, continuous positive airway pressure, intermittent positive pressure breathing and positive pressure ventilation with conventional physiotherapy or oxygen therapy, and assessed the mortality rate, occurrence of pulmonary complications (atelectasis, pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, hypoxemia), reintubation rate, ventilation time, time spent in the intensive care unit (ICU), length of hospital stay and partial pressure of oxygen.
Among the 479 selected articles, ten were included in the systematic review (n=1050 patients) and six in the meta-analysis. The use of noninvasive ventilation did not significantly reduce the risk for atelectasis (RR: 0.60; CI95% 0.28-1.28); pneumonia (RR: 0.20; CI95% 0.04-1.16), reintubation rate (RR: 0.51; CI95%: 0.15-1.66), and time spent in the ICU (-0.04 days; CI95%: -0.13; 0.05). Prophylactic noninvasive ventilation did not significantly reduce the occurrence of pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia, reintubation rate and time spent in the ICU. The use is still unproven and new randomized controlled trials should be carried out.