Patient-reported mobility: a systematic review

The purpose of this study was to identify the self-administered instruments to assess mobility in adults with disability, to link the mobility assessed by these instruments to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to evaluate their methodological quality.

The Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched up to July 2015. Studies on the development and validation of self-administered questionnaires in which at least half of the items were related to movement or mobility were included.

The mobility assessed by the instruments was classified according to the ICF categories. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist.

Of 5791 articles, 34 studies were eligible for inclusion. Only 10 of the instruments contained items that exclusively assessed mobility. The most frequently linked ICF categories were “changing basic body position” (19.4%), “walking” (14.8%), and “moving around” (13.5%). Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (5 studies), reliability (5 studies), measurement error (1 study), content validity (9 studies), structural validity (4 studies), hypotheses testing (6 studies), and responsiveness (1 study). Only content validity obtained the highest quality, probably because the studies included in the review reported the development and initial validation of the instruments.

Self-administered mobility questionnaires published in the scientific literature assess mobility activities rather than functions related to movement, and do so from the perspective of disability, frequently including self-care and domestic life as domains for assessment.

The instruments that presented the highest methodological quality were the Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log, the Movement Ability Measure, and the Mobility Activities Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation Settings.