Development and Validation of Prognostic Indices for Recovery of Physical Functioning Following Stroke: Part 1

This study sought to develop a prognostic index using Functional Independence Measure grades and stages that would enable clinicians to determine the likelihood of achieving a level of minimum assistance with physical functioning after a stroke. Grades define varying levels of physical function, and stages define varying levels of cognitive functioning. Veterans with a diagnosis of a new stroke discharged between October 1, 2006, and September 30, 2008, who were below physical grade IV (requiring minimal assistance) at initial rehabilitation assessment. Physical grade IV was reached by 25.8% of participants who were at first below this grade. Seven variables remained independently predictive of physical grade IV after adjustment. These variables were assigned the following points: age, ≤69 years = 2, 70-79 years = 1, ≥80 years = 0; initial physical grade, I = 0, II = 3, III = 4; initial cognitive stage, I or II = 0, III = 2, IV or V = 3, VI or VII = 4; absence of renal failure = 1; no serious nutritional compromise = 3; the type of rehabilitation services received, consultative = 0, comprehensive = 4; and recovery time between admission and discharge physical grade assessment, 1-2 days = 0, 3-7 days = 4, and ≥8 days = 5. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84 and 0.83 for the point system in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was not significant (P = .93) in the derivation cohort, indicating that the regression model demonstrated adequate fit. The proportions of patients recovered to physical grade IV in the first (score ≥9), second (score = 10-12), third (score = 13-15), and fourth (score >15) score quartiles were 2.72%, 11.38%, 28.96%, and 60.34%, respectively.

By using a simple tool, clinicians can predict the likelihood of recovery to or above the physical grade IV benchmark by the conclusion of rehabilitation services during the acute stroke hospitalization.