Pattern recognition in ARDS: a crucial first step toward personalised treatment

The creation of standardised clinical criteria for diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has led to significant advances in our understanding of the syndrome’s epidemiology and pathogenesis. The current ARDS definition depends on clinical rather than pathological characteristics and is intentionally broad, capturing the extent of the public health impact of ARDS. However, even the strictest application of standard criteria results in a heterogeneous ARDS population.