Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

This systematic review examined the measurement properties of disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures used in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Two independent reviewers conducted a systematic search of key databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL+ and the Cochrane Library from inception to August 2013) to identify relevant studies. A third reviewer mediated in the event of disagreement. Methodological quality was evaluated using the validated COSMIN (Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments) tool. Data synthesis across studies determined the level of evidence for each patient-reported outcome measure. The search strategy returned 2177 citations. Following the eligibility review phase, seven studies, evaluating twelve different patient-reported outcome measures, met inclusion criteria. A ‘moderate’ level of evidence supported the structural validity of a number of measures: the Flandry Questionnaire, Anterior Knee Pain Scale, Modified Functional Index Questionnaire, Eng and Pierrynowski Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales for ‘usual’ and ‘worst’ pain. Also, there was a ‘Limited’ level of evidence supporting the test–retest reliability and validity (cross-cultural, hypothesis testing) of the Persian version of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Other measurement properties were evaluated with poor methodological quality, and many properties were not evaluated in any of the included papers. Current disease-specific outcome measures for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome require further investigation. Future studies should evaluate all important measurement properties, employing an appropriate framework such as COSMIN to guide study design, to facilitate the best possible methodological quality.