The integrated continence system: A manual therapy approach to the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

Heather Grewar and Linda McLean

This article describes the integrated continence system (ICS) which was developed by the authors.  It is an evidence-based model that demonstrates how urinary incontinence is maintained through the interaction of three structural systems (intrinsic urethral closure, urethral support, and lumbopelvic stability) and three modifiable factors (motor control, musculoskeletal and behavioral). The purpose of the ICS is first, to demonstrate the important role that manual physiotherapists can play in the treatment of SUI and second, to guide clinical practice decisions in order to improve clinical outcomes among women with SUI.

Manual Therapy, 12 March 2008, online article ahead of print

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