L. Kalichman, Y. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Niu, D. Gale, D.T. Felson and D. Hunter
The aim of the study was to examine the association between patellofemoral (PF) alignment and knee pain and function. Patellar alignment (measured using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of extended knees) and pain and function (measured with the WOMAC scale) were examined using a linear regression model while adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score and Kellgren and Lawrence score. The authors found that increasing trochlear angle is associated with increased functional impairment. Other measures of PF malalignment were not significantly associated with either knee pain or functional impairment.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 2007, 15(11),