Lin F, Kohli N, Perlmutter S, Lim D, Nuber GW, Makhsous M
Repetitive valgus stress of the elbow can result in excessive strain or rupture of the native medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL). The flexor-pronator mass (FPM) may be particularly important for elbow valgus stability in overhead-throwing athletes. The aim of this study was to identify the relative contribution of each muscle of the FPM-that is, the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and pronator teres (PT)-and of the extensor-supinator mass, including the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), extensor digitorum communis (EDC), extensor carpi radialis longus and brevus, and brachioradialis, to elbow valgus stability at 45 degrees and 90 degrees of elbow flexion angles. Eight fresh-frozen elbow specimens (mean age at death, 73.75 +/- 14.07 years) were tested. The authors suggest that the FCU, FDS, and FCR may function as dynamic stabilizers, with the FCU being the primary stabilizer for elbow valgus stability, incorporating with the MUCL for all tested joint configurations. The findings also suggest that the ECU and EDC increased MUCL strain and elbow valgus movement at both 45 degrees and 90 degrees .
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 2007, online article ahead of print