Jennifer C. Swaringen, Amy G. Mell, Joseph Langenderfer, Suzanne LaScalza, Richard E. Hughes and John E. Kuhn
Physical examination tests that place tension on the long head of the biceps may best reproduce symptoms in patients with type II superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions. The objective of this study is to compare the normalized electromyographic signal of the long head of the biceps for SLAP lesion physical examination tests. The active compression test, anterior-superior SLAP test, biceps load test II, biceps tension test, and pain provocation test were performed on 13 subjects while biceps electromyographic data were recorded. The authors suggest that because the active compression and biceps tension tests maximize muscle activation on the long head of the biceps, they may be the best physical examination tests by which to identify type II SLAP lesions.
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Volume 15, Issue 5, September-October 2006, Pages 576-579