Katja Boersma and Steven J. Linton
This study investigates the relationship between expectations, pain-related fear and pain and studies how these variables are related to the development of chronic pain and disability. The authors conclude that expectancy, negative affect and fear avoidance beliefs are interrelated constructs that have predictive value for future pain and disability. Clinically, it can be helpful to inquire about beliefs, expectancy and distress as an indication of risk as well as to guide intervention. However, the strong interrelations between the variables call for precaution in treating them as if they were separate entities existing in reality.
European Journal of Pain, Volume 10, Issue 6, August 2006, Pages 551-557