Restriction in lateral range of motion, lumbar lordosis, and hamstring flexibility predicts the development of LBP

Restriction in lateral range of motion, lumbar lordosis, and hamstring flexibility predicts the development of LBP

Low back pain (LBP) is an increasingly common condition worldwide with significant costs associated with its management. Identification of musculoskeletal risk factors that can be treated clinically before the development of LBP could reduce costs and improve the quality of life of individuals. Therefore the aim was to systematically review prospective cohort studies investigating lower back and / or lower limb musculoskeletal risk factors in the development of LBP.

Twelve articles which evaluated musculoskeletal risk factors for the development of low back pain in 5459 participants were included. Individual meta-analyses were conducted based on risk factors common between studies. Meta-analysis revealed that reduced lateral flexion range of motion (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.73, p = 0.002), limited lumbar lordosis (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98, p = 0.034), and restricted hamstring range of motion (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with the development of low back pain. Meta-analyses on lumbar extension range of motion, quadriceps flexibility, fingertip to floor distance, lumbar flexion range of motion, back muscle strength, back muscle endurance, abdominal strength, erector spinae cross sectional area, and quadratus lumborum cross sectional area showed non-significant results.

In summary, we found that a restriction in lateral flexion and hamstring range of motion as well as limited lumbar lordosis were associated with an increased risk of developing LBP. Future research should aim to measure additional lower limb musculoskeletal risk factors, have follow up periods of 6-12 months, adopt a standardised definition of LBP, and only include participants who have no history of LBP.

Scott BuxtonResearch article posted by: Scott Buxton

My name is Scott and I am currently the editor of physiospot.

Away from the keyboard I am extended scope physiotherapist working in ED and an acute frailty unit specialising in rapid assessment and discharge of acutely unwell frail older people.


  1. The Question is of these predictors causes for- or consquences from the starting lbp syndrome are. With other words, does trying to counteract these predictors change the change of getting lbp in the future? Or when we treat the body in another way does these predictors disappear with the risk of getting lbp?

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