The lumbar spine and low back pain in golf: a literature review of swing biomechanics and injury prevention

George S. Gluck, John A. Bendo and Jeffrey M. Spivak

This article provides a review of lumbar spine forces during the golf swing and other research available on swing biomechanics and muscle activity during trunk rotation.  Prospective, randomized studies have shown that focus on the transversus abdominus (TA) and multifidi (MF) muscles is a necessary part of physical therapy for LBP. Some studies also suggest that the coaching of a “classic” golf swing and increasing trunk flexibility may provide additional benefit.

There is a notable lack of studies separating the effects of swing modification from physical rehabilitation, and controlled trials are necessary to identify the true effectiveness of specific swing modifications for reducing LBP in golf. Guidelines for returning to golf after spine surgery are also discussed.

The Spine Journal, 2008, 8(5), 778-788

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