The impact of psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activities after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether appraisal of knee function, psychological and demographic factors were associated with returning to the preinjury sport and recreational activity following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. 164 participants completed a questionnaire battery at 1-7 years after primary ACL reconstruction. The battery included questionnaires evaluating knee self-efficacy, health locus of control, psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activity, and fear of reinjury; and self-reported knee function in sport-specific tasks, knee-related quality of life and satisfaction with knee function. The primary outcome was returning to the preinjury sport or recreational activity. At follow-up, 40% (66/164) had returned to their preinjury activity. Those who returned had more positive psychological responses, reported better knee function in sport and recreational activities, perceived a higher knee-related quality of life and were more satisfied with their current knee function. The primary reasons for not returning were not trusting the knee (28%), fear of a new injury (24%) and poor knee function (22%). Psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activity, measured with the ACL-Return to Sport after Injury scale (was most strongly associated with returning to the preinjury activity). Age, sex and preinjury activity level were not related.

Fewer than 50% returned to their preinjury sport or recreational activity following ACL reconstruction. Psychological readiness to return to sport and recreation was the factor most strongly associated with returning to the preinjury activity. Including interventions aimed at improving this in postoperative rehabilitation programmes could be called for to improve the rate of return to sport and recreational activities.

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