This paper evaluates evidence of the impact of patients’ compliance with pharmacological and non-pharmacological recommendations on the treatment costs of heart failure (HF) patients. A systematic review was performed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Papers were searched using different combinations of the following keywords: ‘telemedicine’, ‘telemonitoring’, ‘telehealth’, ‘eHealth’, ‘remote monitoring’, ‘adherence’, ‘compliance’, ‘cost-effectiveness’, ‘cost-benefit’, ‘heart failure’, ‘healthcare costs’, ‘hospitalization’, and ‘drug costs’. Only papers written in English or German, published between 1998 and 2014, and having one of the search terms in the title were included.
A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis that appropriately accounts for compliance hasn’t been undertaken as of yet, but is needed to fully understand the potential economic benefits of telehealth.