The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, predictors, and effects of nocturia in women and evaluate overlaps with established urinary tract disorders. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2,016 women, aged 40 years and older, recruited from Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2008 to 2012. Nocturia and other urinary symptoms were assessed using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Nocturia was defined as patient-reported nocturnal voiding of two or more times per night over a normall week. Thirty-four percent (n=692) reported nocturia, and 40% of women with nocturia reported no other urinary tract symptom. Women with nocturia were older (mean age 58 compared with 55 years) (odds ratio [OR] per 5-year increase 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.31), more likely black (45%) (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.30-2.35) or Latina (37%) (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.83) compared with non-Latina white (30%), have worse depression (mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score 3.8 compared with 2.8) (OR per 1-point increase in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12), and worse mobility (mean Timed Up-and-Go 11.3 compared with 10 seconds) (OR per 5-second increase in Timed Up-and-Go 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.58). Nocturia occurred more among women with hysterectomy (53% compared with 33%) (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.08-2.94), hot flashes (38% compared with 32%) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.19-1.87), and use of vaginal (42% compared with 34%) (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.18).
Nocturia occurs often in women and is not necessarily attributable to other urinary tract disorders. Factors not linked to bladder function may contribute to nocturia risk, underlining the necessity for multiorgan prevention and treatment strategies.