Self-efficacy and affect as mediators between pain dimensions and emotional symptoms and functional limitation in women with fibromyalgia

This study sought to investigate the role of self-efficacy and affect as mediators of the association between pain and several fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms (functional limitation, depression, and anxiety). We evaluated 144 women with FM for self-reported pain (numerical pain scale), pressure pain sensitivity (pressure pain thresholds), functional limitation (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale), depression-anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and positive-negative affect (Positive-Negative Affect Scale). Mediating analyses were undertaken with ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis. The results showed that self-reported pain and pressure pain sensitivity displayed significant associations with functional limitation, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and affect. Affect mediated the relationship between pressure pain sensitivity and anxiety, whereas self-efficacy was the mediating variable between self-reported pain and functional limitation and depression.

These results support a complex nature of pain in women presenting with FM, as cognitive and emotional variables have varying mediator relationships between pain dimensions and functional and emotional outcomes in women with FM.

Neck Pain

Out of all 291 conditions studied in the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study, neck pain ranked 4th highest in terms of disability and 21st in terms of overall burden.

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