Effective intervention for low back pain (LBP) can include feedback in one form or other. Although extrinsic feedback (EF) can be provided in a number of ways, most research has not considered how different EF characteristics (e.g. timing and content) influence treatment outcomes. A systematic search related to feedback and LBP was performed on relevant electronic databases. This narrative review aims to describe the forms of feedback provision in the literature regarding management of LBP, and to discuss these in light of previously recommended principles for the use of extrinsic feedback. The present review found support for the provision of EF that focuses on content characteristics including program feedback, summary results feedback, and external focus of attention. Temporal characteristics should enhance the use of intermittent or self-selected feedback. The literature does not support the provision of concurrent or constant EF.
As much of the literature related to EF in the management of LBP has not considered content and timing characteristics we have identified future research directions that will clarify the use of content and timing characteristics of EF relative to the management of LBP.