The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are chronic autoimmune disorders sharing the clinical symptom of muscle weakness and, in typical cases, inflammatory cell infiltrates in muscle tissue. During the last decade, novel information has accumulated supporting a role of both the innate and adaptive immune systems in myositis and suggesting that different molecular pathways predominate in different subsets of myositis. The type I interferon activity is one such novel pathway identified in some subsets of myositis. Furthermore, nonimmunological pathways have been identified, suggesting that factors other than direct T cell-mediated muscle fibre necrosis could have a role in the development of muscle weakness.
Arthritis Research & Therapy, 2008, 10, 220